1. Geographical location
Pu Mat National Park is located on the northwest of Nghe An Province, about 160km by highway from Vinh city, the geographical co-ordinates of the Park:
18 46 - 19 12 'North Latitude.
104 24 '- 104 56' East Longitude.
Boundaries of the Park: in South there is 61km of shares border with Laos.
Western border with Tam Hop, Tam Dinh, Tam Quang (Tuong Duong District).
Northern border with Lang Khe, Chau Khe, Luc Da, Mon Son communes (Con Cuong District).
Eastern borders with Phuc Son, Hoi Son (Anh Son District).
Whole area of National Park in the administrative boundaries of three districts Anh Son, Con Cuong and Tuong Duong in Nghe An province including 94.275ha of core zone (after adjustment in 1999) and around 100.000ha of buffer zone located in 16 communes.
There are four communes in Tuong Duong District, they are Tam Hop, Tam Dinh, Tam Quang, Tam Hoa; seven communes in Con Cuong are Lang Khe, Chau Khe, Luc Da, Mon Son, Yen Khe, Bong Khe, Chi Khe and five communes in Anh Son including Phuc Son, Hoi Son, Tuong Son, Cam Son, Dinh Son.
3. Topography and Geomorphology
Areas with complex topography, separating strongly. The top side has high slope, average elevation of 800 1000m with the dangerous terrain. Southwest of the National Park where the terrain is relatively equal and lower was habitat of some ethnic communities so far. There many activities of agricultural and forestry has been followed. Located in the area also has about 7.057ha rocky gravel and most of this area located in the buffer zone only about 150ha is situated in the core zone of the national park.
4. Land and soil
Pu Mat National Park is located on the northern of Truong Son range, the process of tectonic geology was formed through the century Palezoi, De von, Carbon, Pecmi, Tri at ... to Mioxen and to today. During the development of the Truong Son range, the cycle of creation Hecxinin mountain, terrain always been a strong external force that makes four main geomorphological forms below:
+ Average high mountain: Located in the border between Laos and Vietnam with several peaks over 2000m high. (Phulaileng with 2711m, Rao Co with 2286m), the terrain is very dangerous, it is very extremely difficult for travel.
+ Low mountains and high hills: This model accounts for most of the domain area and altitude of 1000m or less, the structure is relatively complex, is composed by sedimentary, metamorphic, the terrain is soft and little steeper.
+ Valley tectonics, erosion: although this model accounts for a small area, but convenient for agricultural production, lower elevation including valleys, rivers and streams of Khe Thoi, Khe Choang, Khe Khang (Giang River) and on the right bank of Ca river.
+ Small blocks of limestone: scattered in block with bending folds, karst rather young and is distributed in right bank of the Ca river at an altitude of 200m – 300m. These are formed by distributed thick slabs, gray homogenous and pure.
The soils in the region have identified:
+ Land on Mount is humus feralit average (PH), accounting for 17.7%, distributed from 800-1000m elevation along the border of Vietnamese and Laos.
+ Red and yellow feralit land in hills and low mountains region (F), accounting for 77.6%, distributed in the North and North East National Park.
+ Slop and alluvial land D, P accounting for 4.7%, is distributed alternatively at the right bank of Ca river.
+ Limestone (K2) accounting for 3.6% is distributed alternatively at the right bank of Ca river.
5. Climate and hydrography
Pu Mat National Park is located in the tropical monsoon, influenced by the Truong Son range to revert the atmosphere to original that cause climate here is splited differently in the region.
+ Average temperature 23 - 240C, the total thermal power from 8500 - 87000C.
+ Winter time from December to February of the subsequence year due to the influence of northeast monsoon so the average temperature during these months is less than 200C and the average temperature on the lowest below 180C (January).
+ On the contrary, in summer due to the influence of Western Wind the weather is very dry, which lasted up to three months (from April to July). Average summer temperatures above 250C, hottest in June and July, the average temperature is 290C. At high temperatures up to 420C in Con Cuong and in Tuong Duong is 42.70C in April and May, the humidity in these months less than 30% in certain days.
- Wet moisture rain:
Regional studies focus on little to moderate rainfall, 90% water concentration in the rainy season, rainfall is in September, October and usually accompanied by floods. Dry season from December to April of the subsequent year. Due to the influence of the northeast monsoon there present the spring rain in February, March and April. May, June, July are the hottest months and the amount of evaporation is highest.
+ Humidity in the air from 85 to 86%, the rainy season up to 90%. However the extremely low value of moisture is usually caused by prolonged hot periods.
In areas where the Ca river systems run from the Northwest to Southeast. The transmission at the right banks of Ca river such as Khe Thoi, Khe Choang, Khe Khang flow from southwest to northeast and pour into Ca river.
+ At all three rivers, we can use rafts to goes at certain places. In Khe Choang and Khe Khang, the use of motor-board is possible.
+ In general, the network of rivers and streams is quite dense, the rainfall is distributed unevenly between the seasons and areas causing floods and droughts regularly occur.